Thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia

Tetsu Kubota, Mohd Azuan Zakaria, Seiji Abe, Doris Hooi Chyee Toe

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

  • 2 Citations

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to identify the thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses (CSHs) located in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia with the aim of providing useful passive cooling strategies for modern urban houses. The CSHs are deep-plan brick row houses that are located in relatively dense urban areas. First, this paper empirically analyses the effects of courtyard forms on their indoor thermal environments based on the results of field experiments conducted in 16 CSHs in the city of Malacca in 2011 and 2014. Second, this paper investigates the detailed thermal environments of the selected two traditional CSHs with different courtyard types to discuss the thermal functions of courtyards. It was determined that air temperatures in internal courtyards can be explained using the sky view factor, the height of the courtyard and the difference in the heights of the building and walls that form the courtyard. The courtyard forms that characterized their thermal environments were classified into five types and the different types of courtyards performed different functions with respect to improving the indoor thermal comfort in the CSHs. It was suggested that closed, cross ventilated courtyards be embedded to achieve indoor thermal comfort and avoid excessive humidity in hot-humid climates. Meanwhile, it was also recommended that a staggered form courtyard with V-shaped roofs should be designed as a nocturnal cooling source.

LanguageEnglish
Pages115-131
Number of pages17
JournalBuilding and Environment
Volume112
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2017

Fingerprint

climate
Hot Temperature
Malaysia
cooling
Thermal comfort
Cooling
roof
humidity
air temperature
urban area
plan
brick
city
effect
field experiment
Brick
Roofs
Atmospheric humidity
Air
Experiments

Keywords

  • Courtyard
  • Hot-humid climate
  • Natural ventilation
  • Passive cooling
  • Thermal comfort
  • Vernacular architecture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction

Cite this

Thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia. / Kubota, Tetsu; Zakaria, Mohd Azuan; Abe, Seiji; Toe, Doris Hooi Chyee.

In: Building and Environment, Vol. 112, 01.02.2017, p. 115-131.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

@article{873729aa8eb9428a9ea77e2dd1d08b29,
title = "Thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia",
abstract = "The main purpose of this study was to identify the thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses (CSHs) located in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia with the aim of providing useful passive cooling strategies for modern urban houses. The CSHs are deep-plan brick row houses that are located in relatively dense urban areas. First, this paper empirically analyses the effects of courtyard forms on their indoor thermal environments based on the results of field experiments conducted in 16 CSHs in the city of Malacca in 2011 and 2014. Second, this paper investigates the detailed thermal environments of the selected two traditional CSHs with different courtyard types to discuss the thermal functions of courtyards. It was determined that air temperatures in internal courtyards can be explained using the sky view factor, the height of the courtyard and the difference in the heights of the building and walls that form the courtyard. The courtyard forms that characterized their thermal environments were classified into five types and the different types of courtyards performed different functions with respect to improving the indoor thermal comfort in the CSHs. It was suggested that closed, cross ventilated courtyards be embedded to achieve indoor thermal comfort and avoid excessive humidity in hot-humid climates. Meanwhile, it was also recommended that a staggered form courtyard with V-shaped roofs should be designed as a nocturnal cooling source.",
keywords = "Courtyard, Hot-humid climate, Natural ventilation, Passive cooling, Thermal comfort, Vernacular architecture",
author = "Tetsu Kubota and Zakaria, {Mohd Azuan} and Seiji Abe and Toe, {Doris Hooi Chyee}",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.11.005",
volume = "112",
pages = "115--131",
journal = "Building and Environment",
issn = "0360-1323",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia

AU - Kubota,Tetsu

AU - Zakaria,Mohd Azuan

AU - Abe,Seiji

AU - Toe,Doris Hooi Chyee

PY - 2017/2/1

Y1 - 2017/2/1

N2 - The main purpose of this study was to identify the thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses (CSHs) located in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia with the aim of providing useful passive cooling strategies for modern urban houses. The CSHs are deep-plan brick row houses that are located in relatively dense urban areas. First, this paper empirically analyses the effects of courtyard forms on their indoor thermal environments based on the results of field experiments conducted in 16 CSHs in the city of Malacca in 2011 and 2014. Second, this paper investigates the detailed thermal environments of the selected two traditional CSHs with different courtyard types to discuss the thermal functions of courtyards. It was determined that air temperatures in internal courtyards can be explained using the sky view factor, the height of the courtyard and the difference in the heights of the building and walls that form the courtyard. The courtyard forms that characterized their thermal environments were classified into five types and the different types of courtyards performed different functions with respect to improving the indoor thermal comfort in the CSHs. It was suggested that closed, cross ventilated courtyards be embedded to achieve indoor thermal comfort and avoid excessive humidity in hot-humid climates. Meanwhile, it was also recommended that a staggered form courtyard with V-shaped roofs should be designed as a nocturnal cooling source.

AB - The main purpose of this study was to identify the thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses (CSHs) located in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia with the aim of providing useful passive cooling strategies for modern urban houses. The CSHs are deep-plan brick row houses that are located in relatively dense urban areas. First, this paper empirically analyses the effects of courtyard forms on their indoor thermal environments based on the results of field experiments conducted in 16 CSHs in the city of Malacca in 2011 and 2014. Second, this paper investigates the detailed thermal environments of the selected two traditional CSHs with different courtyard types to discuss the thermal functions of courtyards. It was determined that air temperatures in internal courtyards can be explained using the sky view factor, the height of the courtyard and the difference in the heights of the building and walls that form the courtyard. The courtyard forms that characterized their thermal environments were classified into five types and the different types of courtyards performed different functions with respect to improving the indoor thermal comfort in the CSHs. It was suggested that closed, cross ventilated courtyards be embedded to achieve indoor thermal comfort and avoid excessive humidity in hot-humid climates. Meanwhile, it was also recommended that a staggered form courtyard with V-shaped roofs should be designed as a nocturnal cooling source.

KW - Courtyard

KW - Hot-humid climate

KW - Natural ventilation

KW - Passive cooling

KW - Thermal comfort

KW - Vernacular architecture

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84995955800&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84995955800&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.11.005

DO - 10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.11.005

M3 - Article

VL - 112

SP - 115

EP - 131

JO - Building and Environment

T2 - Building and Environment

JF - Building and Environment

SN - 0360-1323

ER -