Catalytic optimization and physicochemical studies over Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalyst for transesterification of low grade cooking oil

Norhasyimah Mohd Kamal, Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar, Rusmidah Ali

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Abstract

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in green and renewable fuels due to the worldwide concern of an environmental crisis. So, this study focused on the synthesis, optimization and characterization of series of heterostructure Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalysts with different parameters to test their effectiveness towards biodiesel production. The physicochemical properties of the potential catalyst were determined by BET, FESEM and CO2-TPD. The activity of the catalyst in transesterification reaction was evaluated at reaction temperature of 65 °C, 3 h reaction time, 6% (w/w) catalyst concentration and 1:24 M ratio of oil to methanol. The investigation of the synthesized Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalyst showed that the calcination temperature, number of alumina coatings and dopant to base ratio have significant effects on the catalytic performance. These three critical parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with Box Behnken design (BBD) to determine the optimum operating conditions for biodiesel production. From RSM study, the optimum conditions were 800 °C calcination temperature, 3 times alumina beads coating and 10:90 dopant to base ratio which gave 97.80% biodiesel conversion. From the F-value and low p-value (<0.05) obtained showed that the model was significant for predicting the optimum biodiesel conversion. An experiment was conducted under the optimum conditions to confirm the agreement of the model prediction and the experimental results. The experimental value (97.64%) closely agreed with the predicted results from RSM and hence validated the findings of response surface optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-120
Number of pages8
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Volume137
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2017

Fingerprint

Catalysts
Biodiesel
Temperature
Transesterification
Calcination
Alumina
Coatings
Cooking
Temperature programmed desorption
Heterojunctions
Methanol
Experiments

Keywords

  • Alkaline earth metal
  • Biodiesel
  • Heterostructure
  • Response surface methodology
  • Transesterification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

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title = "Catalytic optimization and physicochemical studies over Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalyst for transesterification of low grade cooking oil",
abstract = "Recently, there has been an increasing interest in green and renewable fuels due to the worldwide concern of an environmental crisis. So, this study focused on the synthesis, optimization and characterization of series of heterostructure Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalysts with different parameters to test their effectiveness towards biodiesel production. The physicochemical properties of the potential catalyst were determined by BET, FESEM and CO2-TPD. The activity of the catalyst in transesterification reaction was evaluated at reaction temperature of 65 °C, 3 h reaction time, 6% (w/w) catalyst concentration and 1:24 M ratio of oil to methanol. The investigation of the synthesized Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalyst showed that the calcination temperature, number of alumina coatings and dopant to base ratio have significant effects on the catalytic performance. These three critical parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with Box Behnken design (BBD) to determine the optimum operating conditions for biodiesel production. From RSM study, the optimum conditions were 800 °C calcination temperature, 3 times alumina beads coating and 10:90 dopant to base ratio which gave 97.80% biodiesel conversion. From the F-value and low p-value (<0.05) obtained showed that the model was significant for predicting the optimum biodiesel conversion. An experiment was conducted under the optimum conditions to confirm the agreement of the model prediction and the experimental results. The experimental value (97.64%) closely agreed with the predicted results from RSM and hence validated the findings of response surface optimization.",
keywords = "Alkaline earth metal, Biodiesel, Heterostructure, Response surface methodology, Transesterification",
author = "{Mohd Kamal}, Norhasyimah and {Wan Abu Bakar}, {Wan Azelee} and Rusmidah Ali",
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N2 - Recently, there has been an increasing interest in green and renewable fuels due to the worldwide concern of an environmental crisis. So, this study focused on the synthesis, optimization and characterization of series of heterostructure Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalysts with different parameters to test their effectiveness towards biodiesel production. The physicochemical properties of the potential catalyst were determined by BET, FESEM and CO2-TPD. The activity of the catalyst in transesterification reaction was evaluated at reaction temperature of 65 °C, 3 h reaction time, 6% (w/w) catalyst concentration and 1:24 M ratio of oil to methanol. The investigation of the synthesized Zn/Ca/Al2O3 catalyst showed that the calcination temperature, number of alumina coatings and dopant to base ratio have significant effects on the catalytic performance. These three critical parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with Box Behnken design (BBD) to determine the optimum operating conditions for biodiesel production. From RSM study, the optimum conditions were 800 °C calcination temperature, 3 times alumina beads coating and 10:90 dopant to base ratio which gave 97.80% biodiesel conversion. From the F-value and low p-value (<0.05) obtained showed that the model was significant for predicting the optimum biodiesel conversion. An experiment was conducted under the optimum conditions to confirm the agreement of the model prediction and the experimental results. The experimental value (97.64%) closely agreed with the predicted results from RSM and hence validated the findings of response surface optimization.

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