Antibacterial mode of action of violacein from Chromobacterium violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Claira Arul Aruldass, Santhana Raj Louis Masalamany, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Wan Azlina Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Violacein, violet pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has attracted much attention recently due to its pharmacological properties including antibacterial activity. The present study investigated possible antibacterial mode of action of violacein from C. violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Violet fraction was obtained by cultivating C. violaceum UTM5 in liquid pineapple waste medium, extracted, and fractionated using ethyl acetate and vacuum liquid chromatography technique. Violacein was quantified as major compound in violet fraction using HPLC analysis. Violet fraction displayed bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.9 μg/mL. Fluorescence dyes for membrane damage and scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect by disruption on membrane integrity, morphological alternations, and rupture of the cell membranes of both strains. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed membrane damage, mesosome formation, and leakage of intracellular constituents of both bacterial strains. Mode of action of violet fraction on the cell membrane integrity of both strains was shown by release of protein, K+, and extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) with 110.5 μg/mL, 2.34 μg/mL, and 87.24 ng/μL, respectively, at 48 h of incubation. Violet fraction was toxic to human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and human fetal lung fibroblast (IMR90) cell lines with LC50 value of 0.998 ± 0.058 and 0.387 ± 0.002 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, violet fraction showed a strong antibacterial property by disrupting the membrane integrity of S. aureus and MRSA strains. This is the first report on the possible mode of antibacterial action of violet fraction from C. violaceum UTM5 on S. aureus and MRSA strains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 31 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

Chromobacterium
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
Membranes
Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)
membrane
Bronchiolo-Alveolar Adenocarcinoma
Cell Membrane
Electrons
Cell membranes
electron
damage
Ananas
Poisons
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Vacuum
Liquid Chromatography
Rupture
Acetates
Coloring Agents

Keywords

  • Antibacterial mechanism
  • Membrane damage
  • Membrane integrity
  • MRSA
  • S. aureus
  • Violacein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Antibacterial mode of action of violacein from Chromobacterium violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). / Aruldass, Claira Arul; Masalamany, Santhana Raj Louis; Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Ahmad, Wan Azlina.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 31.03.2017, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aruldass, Claira Arul; Masalamany, Santhana Raj Louis; Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Ahmad, Wan Azlina / Antibacterial mode of action of violacein from Chromobacterium violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 31.03.2017, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Violacein, violet pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has attracted much attention recently due to its pharmacological properties including antibacterial activity. The present study investigated possible antibacterial mode of action of violacein from C. violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Violet fraction was obtained by cultivating C. violaceum UTM5 in liquid pineapple waste medium, extracted, and fractionated using ethyl acetate and vacuum liquid chromatography technique. Violacein was quantified as major compound in violet fraction using HPLC analysis. Violet fraction displayed bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.9 μg/mL. Fluorescence dyes for membrane damage and scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect by disruption on membrane integrity, morphological alternations, and rupture of the cell membranes of both strains. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed membrane damage, mesosome formation, and leakage of intracellular constituents of both bacterial strains. Mode of action of violet fraction on the cell membrane integrity of both strains was shown by release of protein, K+, and extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) with 110.5 μg/mL, 2.34 μg/mL, and 87.24 ng/μL, respectively, at 48 h of incubation. Violet fraction was toxic to human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and human fetal lung fibroblast (IMR90) cell lines with LC50 value of 0.998 ± 0.058 and 0.387 ± 0.002 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, violet fraction showed a strong antibacterial property by disrupting the membrane integrity of S. aureus and MRSA strains. This is the first report on the possible mode of antibacterial action of violet fraction from C. violaceum UTM5 on S. aureus and MRSA strains.",
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AB - Violacein, violet pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has attracted much attention recently due to its pharmacological properties including antibacterial activity. The present study investigated possible antibacterial mode of action of violacein from C. violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Violet fraction was obtained by cultivating C. violaceum UTM5 in liquid pineapple waste medium, extracted, and fractionated using ethyl acetate and vacuum liquid chromatography technique. Violacein was quantified as major compound in violet fraction using HPLC analysis. Violet fraction displayed bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.9 μg/mL. Fluorescence dyes for membrane damage and scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect by disruption on membrane integrity, morphological alternations, and rupture of the cell membranes of both strains. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed membrane damage, mesosome formation, and leakage of intracellular constituents of both bacterial strains. Mode of action of violet fraction on the cell membrane integrity of both strains was shown by release of protein, K+, and extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) with 110.5 μg/mL, 2.34 μg/mL, and 87.24 ng/μL, respectively, at 48 h of incubation. Violet fraction was toxic to human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and human fetal lung fibroblast (IMR90) cell lines with LC50 value of 0.998 ± 0.058 and 0.387 ± 0.002 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, violet fraction showed a strong antibacterial property by disrupting the membrane integrity of S. aureus and MRSA strains. This is the first report on the possible mode of antibacterial action of violet fraction from C. violaceum UTM5 on S. aureus and MRSA strains.

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